Immunization is a procedure where the immune system of an individual is protected from harmful external agents known as an immunogen. With the help of immunization, when your body comes in contact with foreign molecules, the immune system will be able to respond quickly and guard your system. Immunization is done using several different methods. However, the most common technique of all is vaccination. The vaccines keep your body geared up for any future threats, protecting it from almost all infections or diseases.
There are two types of immunizations. And, they are passive immunization and active immunization. In Passive immunization, the immune system doesn’t have to produce any elements to fight a disease. This is because external immunity boosters are transferred into an individual’s body to execute the same. In Active immunization, the immune system of our body creates its own defence mechanisms when it comes in contact with a germ.
Types of Vaccines
BCG is a vaccine, which is usually given to the children to provide protection against TB or Tuberculosis. Currently, BCG is the only vaccine available that provides protection against TB and TB meningitis. However, this vaccine is not suitable for adults.
DTP is a combination of the Diphtheria toxoid with the tetanus vaccine and the pertussis vaccine. Diphtheria and Pertussis are diseases, which can spread from one person to another. Diphtheria can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and sometimes even death. Pertussis or commonly known as a whooping cough can lead to pneumonia, seizers, brain damage, and death. Also known as lockjaw, tetanus can render the patient incapable of opening his mouth or swallowing.
Hepatitis A vaccine
This vaccine provides protection against Hepatitis A. Hepatitis A is a type of liver disease, which is caused by the HAV virus. This disease is usually caused when a person consumes fecal matter of an infected person from food, drinks, etc. This disease can either cause no problems or can even cause major illness. It can sometimes lead to liver failure and even death.
Hepatitis B vaccine
Hepatitis B vaccine provides protection from Hepatitis B. It is a viral infection, which causes damage to the liver. It can be both acute and chronic. Hepatitis B virus is said to be highly contagious and can spread when an individual comes in contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected person.
The Hib vaccine can be used by both adults and children. It provides protection from the Hib disease. This disease is caused by a type of bacteria. Usually, this condition affects children below five. However, adults with certain health disorders can also contract this disease. When some people contact this disease, they don’t become sick and are known as the ‘carriers’. But, this disease can cause serious infections, such as; meningitis, infection of the bloodstream, pneumonia, and throat infections.
This vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella. Measles is a disease where an individual suffers from high fever, rash, cough, runny nose and watery eyes (sometimes red). When this disease is not treated on time, it can cause severe ear infection, diarrhea, pneumonia, brain damage, and death.
During mumps, the patient suffers from fever, headaches, muscle aches, fatigue, loss of appetite, swelling of the salivary glands. And, if the disease becomes complicated, it can lead to the swelling of the testicles or ovaries, deafness, inflammation of the brain, etc.
Rubella causes fever, sore throat, rashes, itchy eyes, and headaches. If a patient contracts rubella during her pregnancy, she could go through a miscarriage or the baby might be born with some serious defects.
OPV (oral polio) and IPV (injectable polio vaccine)
The oral polio vaccine is a simpler method to provide vaccination for polio. It takes just a few drops to prevent polio. In IPV, the intramuscular injections are used. So, what is polio? Polio is a contagious disease, which is caused by a virus. This virus attacks the nervous system. Usually, this virus affects children under 5.
Rotavirus is responsible for gastroenteritis. It is an infection of the intestines. When this infection occurs, it causes damage to the inner lining of the intestine. Due to this when the food passes through, it decreases the number of nutrients. This infection usually affects the children between 6 months to two years.
The thyroid vaccine helps fight thyroid fever. The thyroid fever is an infection, which is contracted through polluted food and water. Apart from causing major problems, this disease can also be fatal.
Why do we need vaccinations?
After taking food, water, and sanitation into consideration, vaccination is one of the most important things. Several infections, which leads to various complications and even death can be altered. Therefore, we can say that vaccination helps boost immunity.